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汉代前黄老学说中的“守一法”探讨

时间:2009-11-10 23:08来源:道德知音 作者:熊春锦 点击:
汉代前黄老学说中的守一法探讨 Research of Shou Yi Method in Huang-Lao Ideology Before Han Dynasty 熊春锦 内容摘要: 守一修身法是上古时代道治社会和德治社会时期一种至简至易的修身方法,《云笈七笺》中曾经指出:长生飞仙,则唯金丹;守形却老,则独真一。将汉

汉代前黄老学说中的“守一法”探讨

Research of “ Shou Yi Method” in Huang-Lao Ideology Before Han Dynasty


熊春锦

 

内容摘要:

“守一”修身法是上古时代道治社会和德治社会时期一种至简至易的修身方法,《云笈七笺》中曾经指出:“长生飞仙,则唯金丹;守形却老,则独真一”。将汉代以后的金丹学和汉代以前的“守一法”所达到的修身境界进行了高度的概括和对比。

守一法最早见于《黄帝四经》,老子《德道经》、《庄子》以及《淮南子》中也多有论述。

随着人类的离道失德,智增慧隐,汉代独尊儒术,以儒解道之风的兴起,造成了“德一”义理的丢失和混淆,使得道学逐渐丢失了修德守一、得一、执一的系列方法论。

本文依据道德根文化三大文化基因时期的特点,运用三元理论,阐述了“德一”的物元,质元,体元在历史长河中的流变过程,将“金丹学‘和“守一法”的修身原理进行了比较和阐发,将汉代以后丢失的守一修身法进行了接续。

 

Abstract:

 

The method of “Shou Yi” (hold to the One)[1] was one of the easiest methods of self-cultivation of far ancient times, when the society was still ruled by Dao and De. The Yun Ji Qi Qian ever said, “Nothing other than Jin Dan could enable the human being to achieve a long and immortal life; nothing other than the true One could keep human’s body away from aging.” It highly summarizes the different self-cultivation realms of the two qualified methods one is the doctrine of Jin Dan from the Han Dynasty and the other the “Shou Yi Method” (method of holding to the One) with its origin before Han Dynasty.

 

The Shou Yi doctrine was first introduced in The Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor and discoursed in De Dao Jing, Zhuangzi and Huainanzi.

Due to the gradual human departing from Dao and loss of De, the Zhi (intelligence) increased and Hui (wisdom) faded; the people of the Han dynasty solely worshiped Confucianism and an atmosphere of explaining Taoism with Confucian theories rose up. Resultingly the real meaning of “De Yi” was largely forgotten or confused, followed by loss of the systematical traditional Taoist methodology, which includes cultivating De, Shou Yi (holding to the One), De Yi (attaining the One) and Zhi Yi (upholding the One)[2].

 

This article elaborates on the historical transformation course of “De Yi” using the concept of the three Yuan according to the attributes of the epochs of the three great culture-genes of the Dao De root culture. It compares and comments on the two self-cultivating theories of “Jin Dan Doctrine” and “Shou Yi Method”. With this it takes up the Shou Yi self-cultivating method which has been lost after the Han Dynasty.

 

“守一修身法”是上古时代道治社会和德治社会时期,人类的心身处于淳德合道的“德一”状态时,无为而为采用的一种至简至易的修身方法,随着人类的离道失德,人类的精神世界失去了“德一”的完整性与稳定性,“德一”朴散为五个德性子系统,开始了“一种离开古代氏族社会的纯朴道德高峰的堕落” (《马克斯恩格斯选集》第4卷第94页)。这种堕落是以一种渐变的方式展开的。“故失道而后德,失德而后仁,失仁而后义,失义而后礼。夫礼者,忠信之泊也,而乱之首也德道经·论德章)。汉代以后,中华民族进入相继丢失仁义礼信四个德的子系统之后的忠信菲薄的时期,加之独尊儒术,以儒解道之风的兴起,“德一”这一修身学中重要的阶梯和次第,开始被人类愚智的错误解读而逐渐拆除,使得大慧大智祖先们留给后世的守一修身方法,从主流修身和慧性教育领域退出,开始了2000多年寄宿山林泉水的流浪期

 

Text:

 

 “Shou Yi Self-cultivating Method” was one of the easiest methods of self-cultivation adopted without intention by human beings during the far ancient times, when their hearts and bodies were both kept in the “De Yi” realm, and when the society was ruled by Dao and De. Along with the humans’ departing from Dao and loss of De, their spiritual world started to lose integrity and stability of “De Yi”, which diffused into the five subsystems of De, and initiated “the decadence of the pure morals existed in ancient clans” (Marx and Engels Collected Works, Volume 4, Pg 94). This decadence unfolded in a way of gradual change. “So when Dao loses, it comes to De; when De loses, it comes to Ren (humaneness); when Ren (humaneness) loses, it comes to Yi (righteousness)when Yi (righteousness) loses, it comes to Li (courtesy). Where Li (courtesy) lies is in the thinness of faith and the beginning of chaos. (De Dao Jing , Chapter of On De) After the Han dynasty, the Chinese nation entered the times that faith is short and thin, when the four subsystems of humaneness, righteousness, courtesy and faith were continuously lost. Even worse, Confucianism was solely valued and the atmosphere of explaining Taoism under domination of Confucian theories arose. The important ladder and sequence of self-cultivation, “De Yi”, began to be wrongly explained and slowly removed. The principle of “Shou Yi” (holding to the One), which was left behind by the ancients of great wisdom, was forced to fade out from the mainstream of self-cultivation and Hui (wisdom) education field, and started the wandering period of more than 2000 years among the mountains, forests and fountains.

 


Analysis of the Six Periods

 

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

Periods of Society

ruled by Dao;

conform to Dao with true Faith

ruled by De;

true Faith bears much De

ruled by Humanity;

waver in Faith

ruled by Righteousness;

Thinness of Faith

ruled by Courtesy;

Faith broken

ruled by Intelligence;

decertification of Faith

Energy State of De

stay in Dao and use the Void

stay in De and use the One

depart Dao and lose De; De Yi scatters to five

lose Humanity and use Righteousness

lose Righteousness and use Courtesy

lose Courtesy and use Intelligence; Faith is thin and chaos arises.

Application in Ruling the Society

all for Dao

all for De

all for public

all for family

all for self

all for the party

Representative Figures

No record;

Human is the deity

Suiren; Fuxi; Nüwa

Shennong; Huangdi

Three kings; Xia, Shang,  Zhou Dynasty

Qin Shi Huang; after Han and Tang Dynasty

Sun Yat-sen

Cultural Periods

true Dao culture

Yi (Yi Jing) Dao culture

Fa (law) Dao culture

De Dao culture

Confucian and Neo-Confucian culture

Western culture

Transference of the nature and heart

purely use the original nature

origin of heart and mind

heart grows and original nature fades

purely use heart and mind

brain

development

Development of Zhi and Hui

great Hui (wisdom)

without Zhi (intelligence)

great Hui and junior Zhi

Zhi grows and Hui fades

Zhi is enhanced

Zhi is highly developed and the spirit forms

Compare to the West

purely use the original nature (no record)

mainly use Hui, assisted by Zhi (no record)

Hui fades and Zhi grows; Socrates

Deduction method (Zhi);

Aristotle

Induction method (Zhi);

Francis Bacon

Intuition method;

Albert Einstein

Change of six Shi

the original nature commands the six roots

the original nature and mind command the six roots together

Zhi grows and enlarges the power of commanding the six roots

Zhi commands the six roots

the six roots’ activities are not under good control

the six roots gradually mature

Qualitative Change of the spirits

spirit of pure yang

the heart-spirit generates

three Hun and seven Po generate; the yin spirits of five organs form

five yin are active

yin is prosperous

yin disorganizes the inner environment of the body

                         

 

一、识“一”

要想正确地解读“守一法”,首先要以汉代以前的黄老学说典籍为依据,结合诞生“守一法”时期,中华传统文化基因的特点,还“一”之本义和本来面貌。

中华传统文化从根本上说,就是以伏羲,黄帝、老子一脉相承的中华道德根文化系统,伏羲易道文化以易阐道;黄帝法道文化以法论道;老子德道文化以德证道。“道”“德”是中华文化各家各派学说的最高统帅和最终归宿

 

I. To know the “One”

 

If we want to correctly decipher the “Shou Yi Method”, first of all the original meaning and features of Yi (the One) should be restored according to the texts of the Huang-Lao-ideology before the Han dynasty, combined with the features (qualities) of the Chinese traditional culture-genes in the times when the “Shou Yi Method” was born.

 

Fundamentally speaking, the Chinese traditional culture derived from the same Dao- De-root-culture-system as presented by Fuxi, Huangdi and Laozi. Fuxi’s Yi-Dao culture explains Dao with Yi (Yi Jing, Book of Change); Huangdi’s Law-Dao culture comments Dao through the law; Laozi's De-Dao culture experiences Dao through De. “Dao” and “De” are the highest command and final result of all schools of Chinese culture.

The System of Chinese Dao De Root Culture

Originated in Fuxi’s “Yi-Dao culture” (Compile Yi Jing according to the River Map)

Yi Dao – to explain the Dao through Yi

Formed in Huangdi’s “Law-Dao culture” (the Four Classics discusses how to rule a country)

Law Dao—to discourse upon the Dao through the law

Matured in Laozi’s “De-Dao culture” (Five thousand words of the great work)

De Dao—to witness the Dao through De cultivation

 

 

中国古代是用“德道象数理气”也就是一元四素方法论认识宇宙和自身的,按照一元四素方法论,“一”是德的数喻。老子曰:“道生一”,道就是一之母,而一就是道之子。道是虚无态、是○。虚无生万有,万有的初始,就是这个既未分解,又无阴阳属性的这个“一”。万物产生以后,全都要依赖于这个“一”的滋养,所以老子又说:道生之而德畜之”。“一”就是德的数学表述方式。

 

Ancient Chinese people used to reveal the universe and self through the methodology of Yi Yuan Si Su (One Prime and Four Elements), namely “De, Dao, image, number, principle, and Qi”. According to the methodology of “One Prime and Four Elements”, “Yi” (the One) is the emblem number of De. Laozi said, “Dao gives birth to the One.” Dao is the mother of the One, and the One is the son of Dao. Dao is in the state of void, and is ○(Zero). The void gives birth to all things. The beginning of all things is the “One” that neither is decomposed nor belongs to any attributes of yin or yang. When all things are generated, they all depend on the nourishment from this “One”. So Laozi also said, “Dao gives birth to it and De nurtures it.” “One” is the mathematical expression of De.

 

关于“一”的属性,学界有人解释其为“道”,这是不符合汉代以前黄老学说的本义的。庄子有一段话对“一”的概念,定义的极为明确:泰初有无,无有无名;一之所起,有一而未形,物得以生,谓之德。” (《庄子·天地》)。道德根文化中,将无极大道演化的过程,分为太虚、太易、太初、太素、太始五大层次,总称为无极混沌状态,这是自然大道的最初始、最本质的时期。道的这五太中,在进入“太初”(也作泰初)期以后,才孕育诞生出“一”。也就是“○中生一,道中生德”,名为“一之所起”。此时,“德一”虽然诞生出来,但是仍然还是“有一而未形”。“德一”具备着“有质无形”的重要特征,但是万物一旦获得她以后,就能诞生出形相,具备有质有形的特征。没有“德一”这个能量体的存在时,万物全都无法生成与生存。所以,又将这个“一”称之为德。

 

Regarding to the attributes of “One”, some people in the academic circles explain it as “Dao”. This does not agree with the original meaning stated in the Huang-Lao- ideology before the Han dynasty. There’s a passage in Zhuangzi which defines “One” extremely clearly: “In the very beginning there was void, which had nothing nor name; then the One rose, it had one but no form, things generated accordingly, and that was called De.” (Zhuangzi, Heaven and Earth) In the Dao De root culture the whole generative course of the Wu-ji great Dao is separated into five levels: Tai-xu, Tai-yi, Tai-chu, Tai-su, and Tai-shi, which wholly are called the state of “Wu-ji” or “Hun-dun”. This was the very beginning and very fundamental period of the great Dao in nature. Within the sequence of the five Tai of the Dao, only in the period of Tai-chu, the One was formed. Also it is said, “One is generated from (Zero), and De is generated from Dao.” This phase has been called “when the One rose”. At that time, although “De Yi” was generated, it still “had One but no form”. “De Yi” just has the very important attribute of “with the substance but without form”. Nevertheless once it has been attained by all things, form and image will be generated; then, all things have the attribute of “with both, substance and form”. Without the energy body of “De Yi” nothing could be generated or formed. So this “Yi” (One) is also called De.

 

老子指出:“无名万物之始也。有名万物之母也。”道本无名,“字之曰道,强名曰大。”道是万物之始的原发点,没有形名可寻。而“一”却是有名的初始态,在黄帝形名学之中,“无色透物的能量形态”就是其,而“”就是其,“”就是其。《德道经》中,“一”共使用了十五次,其中除作为数词和“指示代词”外,大部分均作“德”解。

 

Laozi pointed out, “Wu (void) is called the beginning of all things. You (to be; to have) is called the mother of all things.” Dao is originally without name. “It was named Dao, and I managed to call it Da.” Dao is the original beginning point of all things, without form and name to be traced. But the One is the original state with a name. In the Form-and-Name-Ideology of Huangdi the One’s form is: “colorless and transparent energy state”, its name is “De” and the courtesy name is “Yi” (One). There are fifteen “Yi” (One) in De Dao Jing, besides numerals and demonstrative pronouns; most should be explained as De.

 

在道德根文化时期,人们对“一”的定义和形名都非常明确而清晰。“一”就是万物正确生存发展的、须臾不可缺少的一种最高级、最纯厚、最初始、最质朴的能量。这一能量,具有相对稳定性和可分散性。“一”虽然能贯于五并渗入万物之中,但是全都已经处于分解状态,而且品质是逐级下降的态势。其中的形名已经各异,质性不同。“一”分解后形成的五个德性子系统,绿白红黑黄五种光就是其仁义礼智信就是其。形不同则名各异,仁、礼、信、义、智各自为用,质量却都只是“德一”能量的一部分,并非“德一”质性的全部与整体。这种“德一”能量的饱和性与可分解性,可以帮助我们建立正觉与正念,防止以偏概全。

 

During the times when Dao De root culture was prosperous, the definition, form and name of “Yi” were all very clear and distinct. The “One” is the most advanced, most original, most modest, most simple and purest energy that not a second could be left by all the things as they live and develop in a right way. This energy is relatively stable and capable of dispersion. The “One” can disperse into five as into all things, but being dispersed, it is in the state of dispersion and the quality of energy tends to be lowered gradually. Then, form and name are changed as well as the quality. When the One is dispersed, the five subsystems of De come into form. The five types of light with five colors are their forms, and Humaneness, Righteousness, Courtesy, Wisdom and Faith are their names. Once the forms differ, the names are to be changed too. The applications of Humaneness, Righteousness, Courtesy, Wisdom, and Faith will be different ones. So, they are used separately. But any quality of these five subsystems represents just one part of the energy of “De Yi” and is not to equal with the quality of “De Yi” in its wholeness. This attribute of the “De Yi” energy - that it can be saturated as well as dispersed - can help us establish the right thoughts and ideas, and prevent us from taking a part for the whole.

 

二、“一”的三元变迁

“一”,虽然是一个最为简单的汉字,一般人只是注意这个“一”的数值意义,却从未去掌握它的哲学意义和修身意义,更没有系统性地分析掌握“一”字在历史上的流变现象,以及是否全面掌握“一”的本义对修身修真界产生的重大影响。

 

II. Three-Yuan transformation of the One

 

Although the “Yi” (One) is the simplest Chinese character, commonly one only notices its numerous meanings and never tries to realize its philosophical and self-cultivating significance, not to mention to master the historical transformation of the “One” by systematical analysis, and to wholly evaluate the important effects on the circle of self-cultivation which the original meaning of the “One” brought about.

 

道德根文化的性慧基因,文理基因,汉字基因,建立了一个分析根文化系统的模板。那么在这个模板上分析这个“一”字,就不难发现它本身历经了从性慧基因中诞生,在文理基因中运用,在字形基因中流变的全过程。这个全过程中,需要运用三元论对“一”的质元、物元和体元的变迁过程进行分析,才能正确解读这个哲学与修身学中的“一”。

 

Rooted in Dao De the Gene of Wisdom of the Original Nature, the Gene of Image and Pictography and the Gene of Chinese Character established a template of how to analyse the root-cultural-system. Using this template to analyse the “One”, we easily find out that this One has experienced the whole process: being generated in the Gene of Wisdom of Original Nature, applied in the Gene of Drawing and Pictography and transformed in the gene of Chinese Character. Following this whole process, we should analyse the transformation of substance (Zhi-Yuan), structure (Wu-Yuan) and body element (Ti-Yuan) of the “One”, applying the San Yuan (three elements) ideology. Only in this way we can correctly decipher the philosophical and self-cultivating meaning of the “One”.

The three systems of Chinese Dao De root-culture-gene

 

 

Culture-gene:

Wisdom of original nature

Turning point

Culture-gene:

Image and Pictograph

Turning point

Culture-gene:

Chinese Characters

Origin

True I with Dao’s nature

depart Dao and lose De; De Yi scatters to five

imitate what is outside of the body and imitate what is inside of the body

Taoist inner-seeking methods fading out; other schools’ external-seeking methods prosperous

imitate things far away; imitate what is near or on the body

Formation

Stay in the void and use the One with few selfishness and desires

Selfishness arises; Zhi grows and Hui fades

Fuxi drew the trigram; Cangxie created characters

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors; Spring-Autumn Warring period

unified in Qin Dynasty; fixed in Han dynasty

Attributes

Humans conform to the heaven and follow Dao’s nature

Hui is covered with dust; Zhi that leaves De becomes hindrance

express by image and pictograph

start to express by characters other than pictograph

characters of logical aggregates, ideograph and phonetic complexes

Classification

Do without intent or selfish desires; comply with the nature and environment

Hui fades and characters form

carapace-bone-

script

bronze script;

large seal script

small seal script, clerical script, regular script and familiar style

Learning

keep few selfishness and desires; take diminution as reward

cultivate spirit and body using Hui; hold the One to herd the world

Directly: nurture the void in fetus and infant periods; nurture the original nature in early childhood

Reversely: the aged, adults, youth and teenager

 

all kinds of Chinese characters

regular learning;

learn more everyday

 

1.“一”的物元变迁

一字的源起,诞生于性慧基因之中,可以远溯到伏羲画卦时期,当时人类处于“大慧初智”阶段,“一”就是一个阳爻,代表的是纯阳未破。而这个阳爻卦形,就是“一”的物元形态,全都可以在修身中内观得到验证。“一”的完整与断裂的不同组合,也就是阳爻和阴爻的不同组合。它既可以表述人体内千变万化的机制,同时也可以表述万事万物变化中的起因、过程和结果。

 

II. 1. The transformation of the One’s Wu-Yuan (structure element)

 

The character “One” was originally born in the Gene of Wisdom of the Original Nature, which could be traced back to the times when Fuxi drew the trigram. The people of that time were in the condition of “Great Wisdom and Junior Intelligence”. The One is a yang line, representing pure yang without any break (or interruption). This yang line is the Wu-Yuan state of the “One”, which could be verified during inner perception in the self-cultivation. The internally altered recombination of the whole or so called broken “One” refers to the different combinations of the yang line and the yin line. Not only does it present the ever-changing mechanic in the human body, but also origins, successions and results in the changing course of everything.

 

当人类的后天智识进入“智长慧隐”时期以后,特别是当人类开始从文理基因向字形基因转变时,这个“一”逐渐被淡化了阳爻卦形的物元本义,同时出现了对阳爻的强名,以“德”为名,并被赋予“一”的字和号之义。“一”作为德的字与号,在历史上一直被使用至东周列国时代。

 

When human’s acquired intelligence entered the time of “Intelligence Growing and Wisdom Fading”, especially when humans’ culture-gene started to be transformed from the gene of image and pictograph to the gene of Chinese character, this original Wu-Yuan meaning of “one” gradually faded. At the same time people barely named the yang line as “De” and installed “One” as the courtesy name of “De”. Since then the “one” has been used as the courtesy name of De until the times of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.

 

进入“字形基因”文化时期以后,“一”逐渐形成和附加了数值之义。

“一”的物元之义发生流变,源起于儒学。东汉时期的儒士高诱,著有《孟子章句》、《吕氏春秋注》、《淮南子注》、《战国策注》等等,他的著作对后世具有较强的影响力。他在注解诞生于西汉的《淮南子》时,对其中的“一生二,二生三,三生万物”进行注解时,就已经错误地撇开了老子所说的“道生一”。他曲解地说:“一谓道也,二曰神明也,三曰和气也。或说,一者元气也,生二者乾坤也,二生三,三生万物,天地设位,阴阳通流,万物乃生。”儒士高诱的“一谓道也”的偷梁换柱,对于后世对“一”的定义产生了明显的误导作用,使人们将这个“一”与道混为一团,抛弃和淡化了对“德”的认识。概念的混淆,物元的置换,就使人们失去了循德归道的次第,堕入空言大道的误区。

 

When there came the time of the gene of the Chinese Character, the numerous meanings of the “One” gradually formed and were added on.

 

The transformation of the Wu-Yuan-meaning of the “One” originated in Confucianism. Gao You, a Confucian scholar of the Eastern Han dynasty, wrote Commentaries on Mencius, Commentaries on Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals, Commentaries on Huainanzi, Commentaries on Strategies of the Warring States and etc. His works had much impact on the posterity. When he commented on Huainanzi,    a famous work of the Western Han, he remarked on “one gives birth to two; two gives birth to three; three gives birth to all things” - abandoning completely what Laozi had said in his word, “Dao gives birth to one”. Gao You misinterpreted likewise: “One is what called Dao; two is what called deities; three is what called harmony Qi. Or it can be stated thus: one is the prime Qi, which gives birth to two, the heaven and earth. Two gives birth to three; three gives birth to all things. When the heaven and earth take their places, yin and yang circulate freely, all things are generated.” The Confucian scholar replaced the definition by “One is what called Dao” and apparently misguided the following generations' understanding of the true definition of the One. People mixed the “One” with Dao, disclaimed and faded out the definition of De. The confusion of the definition and replacement of the Wu-Yuan made people lose the sequence of going back to Dao according to De, and let their interpretations sink into the mistaken area of speaking on the great Dao without real content.

 

在汉代形成的“以儒解道”之风,对传统道德根文化的本来面貌,造成了极大的伤害。儒士对“德一”义理的抹杀,完全是“独尊儒术”专制心理作祟的结果。因为只有否定了“德”,抹去了“一”的本义真义,才能使儒学中的五常“仁义礼智信”稳居独霸的学术地位,使人们只知有五常,而不知其源生于“德一”,其中也包括对老子《德道经》德篇在前、道篇在后这一篇序的人为性颠倒。

 

The atmosphere of “explaining Dao with Confucian theories”, formed in Han dynasty, seriously hurt the original feature of the traditional Dao De root culture. The erasure of the definition of “De one” by Confucian scholars totally originated in the despotic desire of “solely worship of Confucianism”: only in case the real definition of De and the One would vanish, the five concepts of “humanity, righteousness, courtesy, wisdom and faith” could dominate exclusively the academic circle, to let people know only about the five concepts and to obscure the Knowledge of their origination in “De Yi”. A similar policy set up when scholars willfully exchanged the order of the texts of De Dao Jing. So, by leaving the order of the original texts of De Dao Jing,

chapters of De forcedly had to change position with chapters of Dao.

 

汉儒的“以儒解道”和“以儒改道”,不仅使社会主流文化从此与道德根文化严重脱节,而且对道学本身的承传也造成了诸多的负面影响力和作用力。汉代以后的道学典籍对“一”的解释已经远远不像秦汉以前那样准确和明晰,变得模糊不清。一般都认为其义与“道”相当,很多人都是将“一”作“道”而直接解之。例如,早期道教的《太平经》在《五事解承负法》中,曾经这样概括:“一者,数之始也;一者,生之道也;一者,元气所起也;一者,天之纲纪也。”从这段论述之中,我们就不难看出道教本身对“一”的解析,已经堕入了迷惑之中,抛弃了《黄帝四经》、老子《德道经》和《庄子》中对“一”的准确论断,主动放弃了对老子“道生一”“道生之而德畜之”思想的承传。复归大道的“德一”台阶,几乎完全被人为地拆除,贵德修一的方法论在儒学的强势影响下,也逐步在道学内部的主流中失传而被抛弃。时至今天,我们社会上的认识,还仍然深陷于汉儒们设计的陷阱之中。

 

In Order to “explain Dao with Confucian theories” and “to modify Dao with Confucianism” the Han Confucian scholars not only cut off the mainstream culture of the society from the Dao De root culture - they also produced negative effects on the inheritance of Daoism itself. The explanations of “One” in the Taoist scriptures after the Han dynasty were much less accurate and clear than those of the Qin and Han dynasty, and became blurring. Common people thought its definition was equal to that of Dao, and many people directly took the One as identical with the Dao. To give an example, the classic work of early Taoism, The Classic of Great Peace, Wu Shi Jie Cheng Fu Fa,concludes as follows: “One, is the beginning of numbers; One, is the principle of lives; One, is where the prime Qi generates; One, is the law of the heaven.” From this passage, we can easily tell how Taoism itself had fallen into confusion when it came to define the “One”. They abandoned the accurate definition in the Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor, Laozi’s De Dao Jing and Zhuangzi, and initiatively gave up the succession of Laozi’s way of thinking in his “Dao gives birth to the one” and “Dao gives birth to all things and De nurtures them”. “De Yi”, the stairs leading to the great Dao, was almost completely removed. The methodology of worshiping De and the cultivation of the One gradually lost their succession and got undermined by the mighty effects of Confucianism. Until today, the common knowledge of our society still falls into the trap designed by Han Confucian scholars.

 

2.“一”的质元变迁

慧观中“德一”的质元是直接呈现光态。这种光质,最高级时是无色却能透明万物,并且没有灼热感的光态,这种光质最接近道,所以也称之为道光,“德一”在人体内早期呈显其质元性质时,是黄金色态。是由信德“中黄”承担着集约汇化仁义礼智四德,聚合绿白红黑四色的质元,转折升华而完成“综五归一”的职能。

 

II. 2. The transformation of the One’s Zhi-Yuan (substance element)

 

The Zhi-Yuan of the “De Yi” appears directly in the status of the light when it is observed by Hui (in the black of Taiji). In its highest stage, this light is colorless, able to make everything transparent and without the feeling of heat. As this light is most close to Dao, it is also called the light of Dao. In its early stage, when “De Yi” appears its nature of Zhi-Yuan in human bodies, it is golden yellow. It is undertaken by the Faith De, “the Central Yellow” to congregate the four systems of De, “Humanity, Righteousness, Courtesy and Wisdom”, to concentrate the substance of the four colors of green, white, red, and black, and then transfer it and sublime. Then it completes the function of “combining the five to the one”.

 

秦汉以后,“一”的质元也发胀了流变,主要表现在对“一”的质元和物元属性,进行了偷梁换柱式的篡改。将“一”的“德”性本义进行数值置换,将“一”纯作数词而用,而置它的“指代德”之义于不顾。例如“一气”这个词的组合中,汉代以后主流社会几乎全部都将这个“一气”解理为数词的一气,而抛弃了“一气”就是“德气”的本义。

 

After the times of the Qin and Han Dynasty, the Zhi-Yuan of the “One” also gradually transformed. The aspects of Zhi-Yuan and Wu-Yuan as attributes of the “One” were gone by the board; the original definition of the “One”, namely De, has been replaced by the numerous meanings, and the “One” was purely used as a numeral, regardless of its dimension as De. For example, the phrase “Yi qi” by the mainstream of the society was understood as the numerous one qi, in neglection of its original meaning, which is De Qi.

 

《黄帝内经·本神》中指出:“天之在我者德也,地之在我者气也,德流气薄而生者也。” 从这一段话中,我们就可以看出,“德”具有质元性,同“气”的质性相似,但是并不完全相同。人的生气与活力在本质上源自于“德”与“气”,“德”源于天,“气”源于地。天德养神,地气养形,二者不可缺一。在秦汉以前由于对“德就是一”,是一种社会的共识。因此,在道学经典中“德气”通行地又被写成为“一气”。

 

It was pointed out in Huangdineijing, The Original Deity that, “The heaven nourishes human beings with De. The earth nourishes human beings with Qi. The flow of De and the circulation of Qi make everything vital.” From this passage we can see, “De” has the nature of Zhi-Yuan, which is like that of Qi but not all the same. Vitality and energy of human beings originate from the “De” and “Qi”. De is from the heaven, and Qi is from the earth. The heavenly De nourishes the spirit and the earthly Qi nourishes the body structure, neither of them could be lacked. Before the Qin and Han Dynasty, it has been common knowledge that “De is the one”. So, in the Taoist scriptures, “De Qi” was commonly written as “Yi Qi”.

 

《庄子》这部经典中曾经两次用到“一气”这个词。《庄子·大宗师》称:“彼方且与造物者为人,而游乎天地之一气”。《知北游》也称:“通天下一气耳。圣人故贵一。”这两处都是基于《庄子·天地》篇中 对“一”就是指的“德”的定性。

 

In the classic of Zhuangzi, Yi Qi” appears twice. In the chapter of Great Master it says, They are going to be with the Creator, and travel with the Yi Qi in the heaven and earth.” In the chapter of Travel to Zhibei it also says, “Connect to Yi Qi beneath the heaven. So the saints worship the One.” Both statements are based on the definition of the “One” as De in Zhuangzi, Heaven and Earth.

 

但是,汉代以后受独尊儒术的强势影响力,普遍将“一”与“气”混为一团,将“一”作“元气”而解。将“一”纯作数词使用。即使是一些道学经典的注解中,也开始不再强调“一”即是“德”的原则性,任由“一”的数词流变成为定局。

 

However, after Han Dynasty, under the mighty effects of solely worshiping  Confucianism, people commonly mixed the “One” with “Qi”, explained the “One” as the prime Qi, or took the “One” as a word with purely numeral functions. Even if in some commentaries of Taoist scriptures they also didn’t emphasize the principle that “One” is De, so the “One” was commonly regarded as a numerous word.

 

“一”的字义向数词的变迁,导致了“德”之义向“气”的流变,这种变迁与流变,从根本上动摇了道德根文化的系统性、完整性和次第性。弃修德而专修气,是修真学近二千年以来的巨大误区,这种误区误导修真者专司于修气而忘记修德。使修真者多如牛毛,成功者却是凤毛麟角。抱气不抱“一”(德)而进行求证的实践者,大都老死于元气之中,始终难以大成。正可谓“修气不修德,万世阴灵难入圣”。

 

The transformation of the “One” from a defined principle to a numerous word led to the transformation of the definition of De to Qi. This kind of transformation fundamentally shakes the systematic approach, wholeness and sequence of the Dao De root culture. That people abandon the cultivation of De and concentrate in Qi has been a seriously mistaken idea for almost two thousand years. This mistaken idea misleads the people in their search for self-cultivation to focus on Qi and to forget about cultivating De. So, people who investigate in self-cultivation there exist as many as stars, but among those the successful ones are extremely rare. Most of the practitioners, who hold to Qi instead of “One” (De), die in the prime Qi and always will have difficulties to reach greater achievements. This is expressed in the word, “One who cultivates Qi instead of De, always stays in the yin spirit level and never achieves the holy realm.”

 

那么“气”与“德”的本质区别是什么呢?依据 “天之在我者德也,地之在我者气也”的揭示,我们可以看出:气是“德一”注入一切有相物质以后,经过转换以后形成的一种能量形态。天德地气一词之中,唯有“天”可以直接传输“德一”能量,但是地球所释放的只能是地气,气属于德,具备德的属性,却并不是全德。人在接收天德以后产生元气能量。在《德道经》五千言中,老子只是三次用到“气”字,万物负阴而抱阳,中气以为和”。“益生曰祥,心使气曰强”。“抟气至柔,能婴儿乎?这三次对“气”字的运用,全都没有离开有形有相的物体和人的命体进行论述。这也就完全界定了“气”是“德”在有形有相物命中转化的物质,并不能轻率地以气代德,更不能以气取代“一”的本义。

 

Then, what makes the essential difference between “Qi” and “De”? According to the revelation that “The heaven nourishes human beings with De; the earth nourishes human beings with Qi”, we can see: after “De Yi” was instilled in the visible substance, it is transformed to a state of energy, which is called Qi. In the phrase of “heavenly De and earthly Qi” only the “heaven” can directly transport the energy of “De Yi”, while what earth releases only can be the earthly Qi. Qi belongs to De and it possesses some attributes of De, but it is not the whole De. After human beings accept the heavenly De, the prime energy is produced. In the five thousand words of De Dao Jing, Laozi only used Qi for three times. “All things carry the yin and embrace the yang; harmony is achieved through interaction of these prime energies.” “That which is beneficial to life is auspicious. To direct Qi by heart is steadfastness.” “In concentrating the Qi to attain resiliency, can you be like an infant?” All applications of Qi in these three words never leave the objects or human bodies with forms or images. That is saying, “Qi” can be defined as matter transformed by “De” in the objects with forms and images, and the text gives no permission to imprudently replace De with Qi, not to mention to replace the original definition of the “One” with the Qi.

 

《庄子》中曾经说“壹其性,养其气,合其德,以通乎物之所造。夫若是者,其天守全,其神无卻,物奚自入焉!”(《庄子·达生》)在《庄子》中的这段话中,我们可以看出,道德根文化中使用“一”,非常严格,当作数词使用时,是大写的“壹”而不是用小写的“一”。“壹其性”就是使性体归于数词意义的壹中,复归于壹而不再分阴分阳。将养气与合德同时抓住,才能通达万物的造化之源,自然大道之境。《黄帝四经》中也多次出现大写的“壹”,与德之“一”区别使用。例如:“天明三以定二,则壹晦壹明,壹阴壹阳,壹短壹长。”“壹朵壹禾,此天地之奇也。”“壹言而利之者,士也;壹言而利国者,国士也。”“壹道同心,上下不分

 

Zhuangzi ever said, “Unify his nature as one, nourish his Qi, unite his virtue, and thereby communicate with that which creates all things. A man like this keeps his the heavenly De whole. His spirit has no flaw, so how can things enter in and get at him?” (Zhuangzi, Mastering Life) We can see from this passage of Zhuangzi that in the Dao De root culture, the use of “One” was very strict. When it refers to numerous words, “”was used instead of “”. “Unify his nature as one” means to have the spiritual bodies unify to one (numerous meanings), return to the one and do not separate as yin and yang. Only when we grasp nourishing Qi and cultivating virtues, we can understand the origin of all things’ generation and the realm of the great Dao. “” appears many times in The Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor, and its use is different from that of “”.

 

3.“一”的体元变迁

万物之中“有质无形”的物质,在无相的世界中具有“聚则成形,散则成气”的共性特征。有质无形的物质也存在品质高低的差异性,“德一”这一特殊的有质无形物质就具备着“凝则成神,离物成光”的重要个性特征。这个“凝”是指的“综五归一”,五德合一之义。而“成神”则是指具有灵性和活力。“离物”则是指德一在离开万物和生命后能以光的质元形态存在,而不是以气的形态存在。德一在万物之内,即可以以气的方式存在,同时也可以以光的形态存在,或者以体元的形态存在。

 

II. 3. The transformation of the One’s Ti-Yuan (body element)

 

In the world without images, the substance in all things “with quality and without form” has the common attributes that “they form structure when they get together, and become Qi when they scatter.” The substance with quality and without forms differs much in the quality. “De Yi” is a special substance with quality and without forms. It has the important individual attributes of “when condensed, it becomes spirits; when scattered, it becomes light”. This “condensed” means “to compose the five to return to the one”. It means to combine the five subsystems of De to the one. To “become spirits” means possessing spirituality and vitality. “Scatter” means, when De Yi leaves things or lives, it will be in a Zhi-Yuan state of light, instead of Qi. As it stays in all things, De Yi can exist in the state of Qi or in the state of light, as well as in the state of Ti-Yuan.

 

在道德根文化没有被儒学文化全面取代之前,历史上道家的修身方法之中,存在着一个运神开慧的时期,通过“守一”法而“得一”的历史时期。通过守一法得一,其中最关键的内容就是综五归一,凝则成神,生成德一的体元。

 

Before the Dao De root culture was completely replaced by the Confucianism, among the Taoist self-cultivating methods there was a method of Yun-Shen-Kai-Hui (applying the spirit to open up the wisdom). This method existed in the period where people could attain the One through the practice of Shou Yi (hold to the One). To attain the One through holding to the One, the most important thing is to compose five to the One, condense the One to a spirit, and form the Ti-Yuan of De Yi.

 

三、守一法的诞生与流变

通过守一而得一的方法,最早见于《黄帝四经》中。昔天地既成,正若有名,合若有形。乃以守一名。上淦之天,下施之四海。吾闻天下成法,故曰不多,一言而止。循名复一,民无乱纪。”在这段话中,我们就可以看到一个上古时代至简至易的修身方法,这就是依据名和形,进行守一,循着“一”的体元之名而复归于一的未朴散状态之中。

 

III. The birth and transformation of Shou Yi Method

The method of attaining the One through holding to the One for the first time was seen in The Four Classics of the Yellow Emperor. “Long ago, when heaven and earth were formed, the De Yi that was not scattered yet has both forms and names. It is called Shou Yi. It fills everywhere in between the heaven and earth and nourishes the world. I know the way leading to great achievements. It can be summarized in one sentence. Follow the name (of the One’s Ti-Yuan) and return to De Yi, then the common people will be able to live in peace.” In this passage, we can find a simplest method of self-cultivation from the far ancient times, which is to hold to the One according to the principle of names-and-forms, and to follow the name of the One’s “Ti-Yuan”, to go back to the un-scattered state of the One.

 

但是这一至简至易的修身方法对修持者的德性品格有着较高的要求。“德一能量”对应着品格的需求性,这是能否真实获得“德一”能量的前提和保证。“一”的能量性与“一”的品格性是统一的,只有具备着“一”的品格性,才能获得“一”的能量。当心身中阴五行还未彻底转阳,五志七情还没有轨范到阀值之内时,我们的心身就像一只有五个漏孔眼的茶杯,是无法承载德一能量之“水”的。只有当五德的品格具足时,才能真实地获得“德一”能量,“德一”的质能也才能完整地表现出来。人的一生之中,只有七岁之前的人生期,在品格上具备着德“一”的品格性,能够通过同频共率,自然地获得一些“德一”的能量。7-14(男性16)逐年递减,乃至丧失。人类正是借助幼稚之年的德“一”心灵品格性,才借助先天生理机制在出生之后的14-16年中,构建积攒起了支撑整个生命历程所需的先天能量储备。

 

But this simplest method of self-cultivation calls for a very high quality of virtue. “Energy of De Yi” matches with the demand of the virtues, which is the premise and guarantee of virtually obtaining the energy of “De Yi”. The energy nature of the “One” is in accordance with the virtue nature of the “One”. Only a person in possession of the virtue nature of the “One” can attain the energy of the “One”. When the five yin movements have not been totally transferred to yang, and the emotions cannot be kept under the threshold value, our heart and body is like a teacup with five leaks, which is unable to hold the energy-“water” of De Yi. Only when all of his five subsystems of De are qualified, one can virtually obtain the energy of “De Yi”, and the energy from the quality of “De Yi” can completely become present. Throughout a whole life, it seems very hard to the individual, to attain the qualified virtue of De Yi, unless in the life-period before reaching seven years of age, meanwhile he naturally can obtain some energy of De Yi through resonance vibration. During the years of 7 to 14 (for male to 16), this ability reduces each year until it will be completely lost. It is in virtue of the heart with qualified virtue of De Yi in the early ages that the human being builds up all the necessary reserve of Xiantian energy (which is not obtained intentionally) throughout the first 14 to 16 years after birth, in virtue of the Xiantian physiological mechanism.

 

 凡有所失,莫能守一。一之解,察于天地;一之理,施于四海。何以知一之至,远近之稽?夫唯一不失,一以驺化,少以知多。”“抱凡守一,与天地同极,乃可以知天地之祸福。”(《黄帝四经·成法》)错误和失败的产生,都是因为没有“得一”和持守住一。在有形有相的凡体命躯中守住德一,能与天地长期共存。这正如广成子所说:我守其一以处其和,故我修身千二百岁矣,吾形未尝衰(《庄子·在宥》)

 

All that could be lost are because they cannot hold to the One. The discipline of the One can be observed throughout the heaven and earth; the principle of the One is carried out all over the world. How can we understand the most profound meanings of the One? Shall we go everywhere to find it out? Only the One does not lose anything. Upholding the One, we have all things in our control. We can know much from the few.” “Embrace the simplest and hold to the One, keep yourself as selfless as heaven and earth, then you can tell the fortune and misfortune of the heaven and earth.” (Four Classics of Huangdi, Chengfa) Mistakes and losses are all because of not “attaining the One” and holding to the one. If one can hold to De Yi in the normal human body with forms and images, he could live as long as heaven and earth. It is just like what Guangchengzi said, “I hold to the One and abide in the harmony, and therefore I have kept myself alive for twelve hundred years, and never has my body suffered any decay.” (Zhuangzi, Zaiyou)

 

老子在五千言中,虽然没有直接将黄帝时代即已经诞生的“守一”方法进行直接性的论述。但是,他在得一章中说到:

 

In his five-thousand-word work Laozi didn’t directly discourse the method of “Shou Yi”, which appeared in the times of Huangdi, however, he said in the Chapter Attaining the One:

昔之得一者:

天得一以清,地得一以寧,神得一以靈,浴得一以盈,侯王得一以爲天下正。其至之也。

胃天毋已清將恐裂,謂地毋已寧將恐發,謂神毋已靈將恐歇,謂浴毋已盈將恐竭,謂侯王毋已貴以高將恐蹶。

故必貴而以賤爲本,必高矣而以下爲基。

夫是以侯王自謂孤、寡、不穀。此其賤之爲本與?非也!

故致數與无與,是故不欲祿祿若玉,硌硌若石。

 

Of ancient times, these attained the One:

Heaven attaining the One became clear. Earth attaining the One became stable. Spirits attaining the One became sacred. Valleys attaining the One became bountiful. Lords and kings attaining the One purified the world.
If Heaven were not clear, it might split. If Earth were not stable, it might erupt. If spirits were not sacred, they might fade. If valleys were not bountiful, they might wither. If lords and kings were not noble, they might stumble.
Therefore, noble has humble as its root, high has low as its foundation.
Lords and kings call themselves poor and lonely orphans. Is this using humility as a root? Absolutely not!
So when people pursue the many, they lose the One;
So they do not desire to glisten like jade but drop like a stone.

 

运用隐喻藏诀的方法,将通过“守一”而“得一”的方法隐含其中。比如这一章中,非常巧合地使用了六次“一”,如果叠加起来,就刚好是一个乾卦,纯阳归一。其中还包含物元的变化过程。只要诵读者具有良好的德性品格,以及真正认真进行“双可教育”的实践和“人法地”的实践,注意文理基因的特点,那么常常就会自然地呈现出一部分质元和物元的变化,在受传“一”的体元名号以后,就会自然地进入守一法的修持之中。

 

In this passage of the text, Laozi hides the method of attaining the One through holding to the One in the cover of metaphorical language and hints at a hidden secret behind the characters. In this chapter, six “One” are used “by coincidence”. If they are stacked up, the hexagram of Qian is formed, which means pure yang returning to the One. In this passage, the Wu-Yuan-transformation is also included. As long as those who practice chanting the scripture have good virtues and seriously follow the “double-chanting education” and the method of “human beings follow the earth”, and pay attention to the attributes of the gene of Image and Pictograph, they will naturally come across some changes of Zhi-Yuan and Wu-Yuan. And after being told the name of the One’s Ti-Yuan, they will naturally enter into the practice of the method of holding to the One.

 

“守一”修持方法,由于在汉代被儒学否定“一”的德名和字号性质,明显地影响了道学正解“德一”,正法退隐,歧法自生,守一的方法就出现了流变现象。虽然现在我们无法对汉朝时社会上流传的守一法进行考证,但是我们从《老子想尔注》中不难发现这种流变。

 

As Confucian scholars of the Han dynasty denied the actual meaning of the “One”, which should be the courtesy name of De, the right Taoist explanation of “De Yi” was obviously affected. Resultingly the right method faded, and diverged ideas generated. Also the practice method of Shou Yi started to change. Although we cannot research into the method of Shou Yi, which has been popular in the society of Han Dynasty, it is rather easy for us to find its transformation in Xiang’er Commentaries on Laozi.

 

东汉产生的五斗米道对于当时流传的并非完全正确的“守一”之法持保留态度。《老子想尔注》中就批评守身中之神是“伪伎”。并且说:“守之云何?一不在人身也,诸附身者悉世间常伪伎,非真道也;一在天地外,入在天地间,但往来人身中耳,都皮里悉是,非独一处。” “今布道诫教人,守诫不违,即为守一矣;不行其诫,即为失一也”。由此可见五斗米道当时并没有将黄老庄真正的守一之法承传下来,对“一”中三元的解析,也只是抓住了其中的质元,几乎将“一”的质元解释为“气”而言“都皮里悉是,非独一处。”

 

The Five Pecks of Rice, a Taoist school originated in Eastern Han Dynasty, kept an attitude of reservation towards the method of “holding to the One”, which was popular at that time but not practiced in the right way. In Xiang’er’s Commentary on Laozi, the method of holding to the spirit in the body was criticized as “false technique”. It said, “What is there to hold to? The One is not inside the human body. All those sticking to the body are false techniques missing the true Dao. The One is beyond heaven and earth, and it comes in between heaven and earth. It only moves into and out of the human bodies, scatters in both the skin and inner of the body instead of remaining in one place.” “Now we teach people the commandments of Dao. To follow the commandments is to hold to the One. A violation of the commandments means loss of the One.” We can recognize in these texts that the school of Five Pecks of Rice didn’t succeed relating to the real Huang-Lao-Zhuang’s method of Shou Yi at that time. Their explanation of the One only grasped the Zhi-Yuan (substance element) of the One, which is only one of the three-Yuan. They almost explained the Zhi-Yuan of the One as Qi by using the characterization of “scatters in both the skin and inner of the body instead of remaining in one place”.

 

守一之法在道家内部,虽然因为五斗米道的置疑而从主流修身方法中逐渐淡出。但是并没有真正失传。晋朝葛洪在《抱朴子内篇》就曾经提出了“思神守一”的方法,可以“却恶卫身,常如人君之治国,戎将之待敌,乃可为得长生之功也”。

 

Although the method of holding to the one gradually faded from the mainstream of the self-cultivating methods due to the doubts coming from the school of Five Pecks of Rice, it still has been handed down within the Taoism. Ge Hong, a Taoist master of Jin Dynasty, ever put forward the method of “thinking of the deity and holding to the One” in Baopuzi Inner Writings, which said that by using this method, one could “keep the evils away and guard the body, just like how the kings rule the country, the generals treat the enemy, and then he can try to attain long life.”

 

《云笈七箓·三一服气法》也指出:“夫欲长生,三一当明。上一在泥丸中,中一在绛宫中,下一在丹田中。人生正在此也。

 

Yun Ji Qi Qian, Method of Three-One-Swallow-Qi also points out, “If you want to live long, you should know what the three Ones are. The upper One is in Niwan; the middle One is in the Red Palace; and the lower One is in Dantian. Human life is totally in the Ones.”

 

唐宋以后,道家的修身方法,随着人们离道失德的渐行渐远,对道德根文化解读的后天智识化,以及天道进行“以今之道,以御今之有”的自然调控。逐步地形成了人元、地元、天元三大系统和流派。这三大系统的最终目标都是相同的,都是得一。但是,对“一”的质元、物元、体元的把握各有侧重,或者区分先后。其中全面继承黄老庄思想的法脉流派,则是整体地把握住一的三元本质,运用“双可法”和“人法地,地法天,天法道,道法自然”的方法,形成的“神修天元丹法”保持了“守一”方法的系统性。而且在实践方法上,更符合人类智识思维当中的归纳、推理、演绎等方式,也就是适合现代人的口味虽然有点类似爬楼梯从一楼爬到九楼的滋味,但是对现代人后天意识的认知也是一个必要的锻炼的过程。

 

After Tang and Song Dynasty, the Taoist self-cultivating methods have been gone far and far along with the human beings’ departing from Dao and De, explaining Dao De root culture with Houtian intelligence, and under the force of the natural adjustment and control by the heavenly Dao. Three big systems or schools of Human-Yuan, Earth-Yuan and Heaven-Yuan were gradually formed. The final targets of the three big systems are the same; they all demand to attain the One. But they lay different stresses on the Zhi-Yuan, Wu-Yuan and Ti-Yuan, or they gather them into a different order. Among the schools, there is one that overall succeeds relating to Huang-Lao-Zhuang ideology. It grasps the essence of the three-Yuan of the One integrally, and makes use of the methods of “double-chanting” and the sequence of: “human beings follow the earth, the earth follows the heaven, the heaven follows the Dao, and the Dao follows its own nature.” The method formed is called “Shenxiu Tianyuan Danfa”, and it pays attention to the systematical frame of the “holding to the One” principle. Moreover, this way to practice arranges better with the lines of human intelligence, such as generalization, reasoning and deduction, which means, this way to practice is a suitable one also for modern people. It is rather like to climb up the stairs from the first floor to the ninth floor; however it is a necessary training course for the modern people’s Houtian intelligence in order to really understand the whole thing.

 

四、守一法和金丹法的修身原理对比

 

IV. Comparison of the two self-cultivating methods: Shou Yi and Jindan

The five stages of human thinking mode

 

 

Wisdom of the original nature

Deduction method

Induction method

Intuition method

Zhi Yi (upholding-

the-One) method

Representative figures

Fuxi, Huangdi, Laozi, Socrates, Plato

Aristotle

Francis Bacon

Albert Einstein

Laozi

Time

Before 2500 years ago

Ancient times; 384BC—322 BC

Modern times

1561-1626

Nowadays

1879-1955

Future

Attributes

Great Hui without Zhi or with junior Zhi

Hui fades and Zhi grows

Zhi was enhanced

Zhi is highly developed and its spirit forms

Great Zhi and Great Hui; Zhi and Hui develop in harmony

Energy of De

Stay in Dao and use De; depart from Dao De

De Yi scatters to five;           Thinness of Faith

Revival of Dao De; hold to the One to herd the world

 

在智长慧隐的早期,人们是通过运神开慧的“守一”法而获得“德一”的质元。这一方法在历史上一直沿用至春秋战国时期。在人类进入“智增强化”的秦汉时代以后,则是运用炼精化气金丹法重新获得“德一”的质元。

 

In an early stage where intelligence was growing and wisdom was fading, human beings attained the Zhi-Yuan of “De Yi” through the Shou Yi method, which needed to “Yun-Shen-Kai-Hui” (apply the spirit to open up the wisdom). This method had been used until the Spring-autumn Warring period. After the Qin and Han Dynasty, human beings entered the period of intelligence enhancement and re-attained the Zhi-Yuan of “De Yi” by using the Jindan method, which needs to “Lian-Jing-Hua-Qi” (refine Jing and transfer to Qi).

 

秦汉以后诞生的金丹学派“以功德为体,金丹为用”,形成了一套完善的理论和内求方法。其灵魂就正是抓住了修证实践这个“德一”的质元属性,“德一”在这个时期流变成了“真一”,又被解释为“真水”。丹道学中对“德一”的解析,是为了服从“炼精化气”而下手的原则,把握住这个金色能量体,先从“一”的质元论起而言“真一”,继以“一”的物元求证而言“玉液还丹”和“金液还丹”,金色大丹的聚合完成,也就是进入到“德一”的完整质元形态之中。金丹的成就,本质上是“德一”的质元向物元的转变。最后才以一的体元验证而言“炼气化神”以及“炼神还虚”与“还虚合道”。最终仍然还是符合于老子的“得一”之说。这些流变全都是为了适应当时社会人们后天智识的需求。

 

The Jindan School, originated after Qin and Han Dynasty, formed a perfect theory and inner-seeking method based on “merits and virtues as body and Jindan as application”. Its soul lived in the adherence to practice and cultivation of the Zhi-Yuan of “De Yi”. In this period, “De Yi” was transformed to “Zhen Yi” (True One), also explained as “True Water”. This explanation in Dan-Dao ideology complies with the principles of starting from “refining the Jing and transferring to Qi”, and grasps this golden energy body. First they start from the Zhi-Yuan of “True One”, then move on to prove the Wu-Yuan through “Yu-Ye-Huan-Dan” and “Jin-Ye-Huan-Dan”. When the convergence of the big golden Dan is completed, the complete Zhi-Yuan of “De Yi” is presented. The accomplishment of Jin Dan actually is the transformation of “De Yi” from Zhi-Yuan to Wu-Yuan. Eventually it will end in the Ti-Yuan of the One, which is also called “Lian-Qi-Hua-Shen” (refine Qi and transform it to Shen), “Lian-Shen-Huan-Xu”(refine Shen and return to the void) and “Huan-Xu-He-Dao”(refine the void and conform with Dao). Finally it still conforms to Laozi’s theory of “attaining the One”. All these transformations were to meet the demands of human’s Houtian intelligence of the society in that time.

 

《云笈七笺》中曾经指出:“昔黄帝到峨嵋山,见皇人于玉堂中。帝请问真一之道,皇人曰:长生飞仙,则唯金丹;守形却老,则独真一。故仙重焉。凡诸思存,乃有千数,以自卫率多,烦杂劳人,若知守一之道,则一切不须也。”“凡服金丹大药,虽未去世,百邪不敢近人。若服草木小药,饵八石,适可除病延年,不足以禳外祸,或为百鬼所枉,或为太山横召,或为山神所轻,或为精魅所侵。唯有真一,可以一切不畏也”从这一论述,不难看出守一法和金丹法对命体再造、清因消业、护体防卫等方面明显的层级差别。

 

Yun Ji Qi Qian ever pointed out: “In ancient times, when Huangdi (the Yellow Emperor) went to Ermei Moutain, he saw Huangren at the Jade Hall. Huangdi asked him for the theory of the True One. Huangren said, nothing other than Jin Dan could enable human to achieve long and immortal life; nothing other than the True One could keep human’s body away from aging. So the immortals value it. The methods that need contemplation vary a lot. People who use them put much emphasis on guarding themselves, which is complicated and troublesome. If they know the method of Shou Yi, nothing is needed.” “People taking the medicine of Jin Dan still live in the world, but no evil could be close to them. People who take normal medicine, no matter how much they take, they can only prolong their lives, but cannot avoid all kinds of disasters. Only if he possesses the True One, can he fear nothing.” By textual evidence there is no difficulty to tell about the obvious differences between the methods Shou Yi and Jin Dan, referring to the aspects of rebuilding the body, removing the ill-causes, and self-guarding.

 

人类居于道和居于德的时期,先天性慧统帅着后天智能,人们没有欲望和私心,也就能够“得一”而不失。现代人如果能够实践少私而寡欲,恢复保持着先天性慧统帅后天智能,同样能够“得一”。

 

When human beings live in Dao and De, the Xiantian wisdom of original nature commands the Houtian intelligence - people do not grow desires and selfish mind, so they could “attain the One” and keep it. If modern humans can practice diminution of desires and selfish mind, resuming the Xiantian wisdom of original nature as commander of Houtian intelligence, and maintain this condition, they also could be able to “attain the One”.

 

现在人类已经进入了向智识发展第五阶段的转折期之中,第五阶段的特点是慧智同运,智慧圆融,只有将人类“大慧初智”时期采用的“守一”修身法和“智长慧隐”时期诞生的“金丹法”接续起来,才能在当今千载难逢的时空场中,成就一大批真人,为道德复兴,老子执一思想的运用奠定坚实的基础。

 

Now, human beings have reached the turning point at the fifth stage of intelligence development. The attributes of this stage relate to the reunion of wisdom and intelligence together and in harmony. Solely by taking up the self-cultivating method of “Shou Yi” adopted in the “great wisdom and junior intelligence” period and the “Jin Dan” method originated in the “intelligence growing and wisdom fading” period, we will induce a lot of Zhen Ren in this specific space and time, which never appeared for thousands of years, and lay a solid foundation for the application of the “upholding-the-One” theory of Laozi and for the revival of Dao De.

 

《太平经》在《修一却邪法》中说:“一者,乃道之根也,气之始也:命之所系属,众心之主也。当欲知其实,在中央为根,命之府也。故当深知之,归仁归贤使之行。”又说:“上贤明力为之,可得度世;中贤力为之,可为帝王良辅善吏;小人力为之,不知喜怒,天下无怨咎也。”这说明,“守一”法不仅是修身之道,也是一种度世、辅国、治身的方法,也就是“天之纲纪”——自然法则,非常符合老子“修之身,其德乃真,修之家,其德有余;修之乡,其德乃长;修之邦,其德乃丰;修之天下,其德乃博。”的原旨。长生飞仙,守形却老”全都并非“修之身,其德乃真”的真正的目的,心灵净土和人间净土的实现,人类自身的和谐,以及人与自然的真正和谐,才是修真的唯一目的。以百姓之心为心,才是真人的本份。

 

In The Classic of Peace, Method of Keeping Evils Away through Cultivation of the One, it is said: “The One is the root of Dao and the beginning of Qi. It is where the life belongs to, and the master of all hearts. If you want to learn it, it roots in the central, and it is the house of the life. So you should learn it well and be virtuous to let it work.” And it also says: “If the best virtuous people use it well, they can save the world; if the better virtuous people use it well, they can be the good helpers of emperors and kings; if normal people use it well, they won’t have keen emotions, so there will be no complains or blames in the world.” It shows the method of “Shou Yi” is not only a way of self-cultivation, but also a method to be used in saving the world, assisting the rulers and curing the body. It can be regarded as the “principle of the heaven”, or the law of nature. Highly it conforms to Laozi’s way of thinking: “If one practices it in one's person, his De will be genuineness. If one practices it in his family, his De will be abundance. If one practices it in his village, his De will be durability. If one practices it in his state, his De will be prosperity. If one practices it in the whole world, his De will be universality. To “achieve long and immortal life” or to “keep one’s body away from aging.” cannot be the true goals - as for us, who “practice it in person, De will be genuineness”. The reality of the pure land in our hearts and in the human world, the harmony among the human beings, and the true harmony between human being and nature is the sole goal of our self-cultivation. To embrace a heart that always feels the feeling of the common people, is the devoir of Zhen Ren.

 

 



[1] “Shou Yi”, in Chinese character“守一”,“守”has various meanings including “guard, keep, watch, defend, hold to, preserve, abide by, etc.”

[2] “Shou Yi” (hold to the One) emphasizes the methods one uses before attaining the One, including to abide by the virtues of De, to believe in the One, to call the name of its Ti-Yuan, to watch the One with the mind, etc.; “Zhi Yi” (uphold the One) emphasizes to have a comprehensive master and use of the three-Yuan of the One after attaining the One.

 

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